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Study 96 : TEST WITH THE BEST Are YOU over 60 years of age?

Clinical Trials

Study 96 : TEST WITH THE BEST Are YOU over 60 years of age ?
Leeds – Yorkshire
Also recruits from this area
Type of Study Are YOU 60 years and over Time to spare

We need you for MEDICAL TRIALS throughout the year

DO SOMETHING WONDERFUL

Aim of Study HELP TEST TOMORROWS MEDICATIONS TODAY
Inclusion Criteria  If You are male or female , healthy and taking no regular medication, we need you to help us Test Tomorrows Medicines Today at our clinic in LEEDS

MUST HAVE PASSED INSTANT ELIGIBILITY ON THE MENU BAR

Area  This requires attendance to their LEEDS clinic
Duration  To Be Confirmed with the actual study but studies usually last 1 day to a month
Reimbursement  300 TO 2,000 POUNDS
Other Info  A screening attendance allowance of 20 pounds will be paid .

SPECIAL 100 POUND BOUNTY FOR REFERRING A FRIEND SEE FREE GIFT BUTTON ABOVE

Notes  When you are selected for a study, you will be given a small dose of the trial medicine. Our doctors and nurses will then monitor the effect the drug has on your body by obtaining frequent measurements of blood pressure, pulse and ECG.

Blood and urine samples will also be obtained at regular intervals to assess how quickly the drug is absorbed by, and passed out of, your body.

As your safety is our primary concern, you will stay under our care for the duration of the study, and this will include some overnight stays.

We want your stay to be as comfortable and enjoyable as possible. You will have a lot of free time to participate in one of the many recreational activities or events planned for you by our dedicated team of Volunteer Recreation Officers:

Pool table
Freeplay arcade games
PlayStation
Internet suite
Sky TV and extensive video library
Free daily newspapers and magazines
Board games, books, quizzes, tournaments…
Time for gentle outdoor exercise is allocated, giving you the opportunity to take a stroll in the grounds and watch squirrels crack their nuts in fields of green or play outdoor games such as croquet, sovepiller uden recept, boules and garden Jenga.

REGISTER NOW TO BE SENT A FREE DVD AND INFO PACK .

The Study listings behind this members button will provide you with all the times and dates and are constantly under change as new studies become available . Keep an eye on this site and TEST WITH THE BEST.

If you would like to share this info with a friend , please use the E-mail a friend buttons at the top or bottom of the trials listings

Study 76 :Mystery Shopping and Paid Surveys

Clinical Trials

Study 76 :Mystery Shopping and Paid Surveys
Also recruits from this area
Type of Study WHEN THE GOING GETS TOUGH THE TOUGH GO SHOPPING

CINEMA TRAILER CHECKS
DINING IN RESTAURANTS
GET PAID TO SHOP
FILL IN ON-LINE SURVEYS
DRINKING IN A BAR
THE LIST IS ENDLESS

Aim of Study Mystery Shopping —

Many businesses hire mystery shoppers to see how well they are serving the customers. A mystery shopper is someone who is paid to visit an establishment such as a retail store, bank, or restaurant, for the purpose of measuring the customer experience. Most mystery shoppers sign up with a company that coordinates the assignments. When you are given an assignment as a mystery shopper, you will be given details on conducting your visit. During your visit, you may be required to purchase an item (meal at a restaurant, movie tickets, etc.) You will be reimbursed for your purchase. After your visit, you will complete a report detailing your experience. If you properly complete your assignment, you will be paid a fee for your efforts.

Inclusion Criteria  NO EXPERIENCE IS REQUIRED
BOTH MEN AND WOMEN ARE NEEDED OVER THE AGE OF 18.
Ability to follow directions closely.
Good memory capacity.
Strong observation skills.
Ability to clearly describe observations in writing.
Must be able to meet deadlines
Exclusion Criteria  Anybody who is not mobile .
Area  Assignments take place in your own area of residency and many mystery shopping companies recruit WORLD WIDE .
Duration  Assignments can be 15 minutes to an hour and multiple assignments in one day may also be given . They tend to be very flexible .
Reimbursement UK INFO

Video Shopping – 30 pounds an hour .
Cinema Trailer checks – 8-10 pounds per screening .
Assorted smaller jobs up to 15 pounds per half hour assignments .

Other Info  These opportunities are presented for our members to help you during the waiting periods between studies . However, you can just participate in Non-Medical research opportunities if you wish .These activities can very often provide additional financial support for example -participating in non invasive research such as Psychology tests, or Blood Donations etc, or help to provide financial help for those who have chosen longer term studies where the rewards may be a little lesser . These are great opportunites for students , stay at home mums, or anybody wishing to earn extra rewards in your spare time .

BENEFITS:

Get paid to shop.
Keep what you buy.
Get paid to have fun.
Get paid to give your opinion.
See the latest movies for free.
Be an undercover consumer,report your experiences
Flexible hours to fit your lifestyle.
Get paid to eat in fine restaurants.
Free up quality time with your children/family.

BioTrax is a subscriber based service which takes all the hard work out of finding credible opportunities you can trust . There are, like in any industry, a lot Rip Off’s and Frauds – So BioTrax provides only the most credible of opportunities . We also insure that by subscribing to BioTrax you will have the ability to register with credible companies, where an abundance of opportunities will be made available .

TRY BEFORE YOU BUY :

Its always a welcoming surprise for any information service to allow you to try before you buy, so you have an example and can test the waters . So here it is . We have selected a very credible organization that recruits world wide that has an abundance of opportunities, where you can apply on a very informative web site that explains all the ins and outs – with even a frequently asked question page .

Its a very informative web site, although we can not guarantee when you will be contacted because we are not the company. If you subscribe to BioTrax then you will receive plenty of opportunities ,where in the event of individual companies having slow periods , you can rely on other companies with many opportunities to offer at any point in time. You can read about our membership services on the HOME PAGES .

For those of you wishing to try before you buy , here is an opportunity you can trust . It also provides you with an example of our directory listings .

Gapbuster
E-mail: becomeashopper@gapbuster.com
shopper.uk@gapbuster.com

Notes: RL – RN – RI -WE.
a) £5.00 – £15.00 UK.
Standard payments in the US $11 – $17, Australia $4 – $18.
b) 5-6 assignments per month.
c) Unlimited work, Worldwide – 30 Countries.
d) Apply online, flexible working hours. Visit local retail & Fast Food Outlets,
assessing customer service.
e) Pd Monthly.

WHAT MAKES BIOTRAX THE VERY BEST INFORMATION SERVICE IN THE WORLD

A) If you’re having difficulty, we are here to provide you with personalised help and support . Very few companies will provide back up support.

B) Many mystery shopper sites are very expensive and can expect to pay up to 35 pounds for just a mystery shopping service . With Biotrax you are provided with 2 – 3 directories for a once off lifetime membership, allowing you even greater opportunities into Medical Research and Film and TV extra work . These are all opportunities that require NO EXPERIENCE to participate ,although if you wish to combine these opportunities with Medical research you will need to be generally eligible which is the purpose of our Instant Eligibility Test on the menu bar .

C )There is always something on our web site where you can apply for FREE and test the waters of sovepiller håndkøb, or if you’re experiencing financial hardships, you can find an opportunity to make money . This can help pay for your subscription .

D) Its always comforting to know that a lot of our profits are directed towards providing greater awareness and support for sufferers of illness, and that we are a company that does its absolute up most to help not only healthy volunteers, but the sufferers of illness who definitely have greater needs than our more fortunate healthy volunteers . Sometimes in life it pays to be reminded how fortunate and well off some of us really are . You can view our Health Zone news letters and the support we have started to provide for the suffers of medical conditions by clicking through to the patient volunteers section on the home pages of our web site .

Do you think we are being a little modest volunteers

NEVER , but at least we’re honest and we do our best to help you and provide professional solutions that every research volunteer has always wanted, or needed and we do more than our fair share to help people with medical conditions

We feel confident that we really have built for you , the very best information, advisory and support service for volunteers in the world, and that we will continue to further develop and consistently improve your services . This is the commitment we have made to our research volunteers .

Notes MYSTERY SHOPPING GROUPS ARE MANY VARIED AND WORLD WIDE .

CLICK HERE FOR OVER 50 UK AND 50 US AND CANADIAN OPPORTUNITIES ALL OF WHICH ARE FUN UNIQUE AND INTERESTING .

THE MAJORITY OF ALL THESE OPPORTUNITIES RECRUIT NATIONALLY .

GREAT FILLERS BETWEEN STUDIES, OR AT ANY TIME .

MEMBERS CAN GAIN ACCESS TO THE GET PAID TO SHOP DIRECTORY BY CLICKING ON THE MEMBERS APPLY HERE BUTTON BELOW WHERE, IF YOU ARE NOT ALREADY LOGGED IN, YOU WILL BE ASKED FOR YOUR USER NAME AND PASSWORD .

NON MEMBERS CAN CONTACT BIOTRAX DIRECT USING THE CONTACT BUTTON ABOVE FOR ANY QUERIES RELATING TO THESE SERVICES OR OPPORTUNITIES

Study 31 : TEST WITH THE BEST Surgically Sterilised or Post Menopausal?

Clinical Trials

Study 31 : TEST WITH THE BEST Surgically Sterilised or Post Menopausal ?
Leeds – Yorkshire
Also recruits from this area
Type of Study Various clinical trials for females throughout the Year.
Aim of Study TO HELP MEDICAL RESEARCH IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF PEOPLES LIVES
Inclusion Criteria  Females ONLY .
Smokers up to 15 cigs per day
Non Smokers
Must be surgically sterilised / Post menopausal
Must have passed instant eligibility on the menu bar
Area  THIS STUDY REQUIRES VISITATION TO THE LEEDS CLINIC
Duration  Various Studies throughout the year but usually 1 day to a month
Reimbursement  300 – 2,000 POUNDS
Other Info  A SCREENING ATTENDANCE FEE OF 20 POUNDS WILL BE PAID

SPECIAL 100 POUND BOUNTY SEE FREE GIFT BUTTON ABOVE

Notes  Most London clinics will accept your overseas doctors registration, or a three month local doctors registration. However this clinic will require a three years doctors history in the UK.

When you are selected for a study you will be given a small dose of the trial medicine. Our doctors and nurses will then monitor the effect the drug has on your body by obtaining frequent measurements of blood pressure, pulse and ECG.

Blood and urine samples will also be obtained at regular intervals, to assess how quickly the drug is absorbed by, and passed out of, your body.

As your safety is our primary concern, you will stay under our care for the duration of the slaappillen melatonine study and this will include some overnight stays.

We want your stay to be as comfortable and enjoyable as possible. You will have a lot of free time to participate in one of the many recreational activities or events planned for you by our dedicated team of Volunteer Recreation Officers:

Pool table
Freeplay arcade games
PlayStation
Internet suite
Sky TV and extensive video library
Free daily newspapers and magazines
Board games, books, quizzes, tournaments…
Time for gentle outdoor exercise is allocated, giving you the opportunity to take a stroll in the grounds and watch squirrels crack there nuts in fields of green or play outdoor games such as croquet, boules and garden Jenga.

REGISTER NOW TO BE SENT A FREE DVD AND INFO PACK .

The Study listings behind this members button will provide you with all the times and dates and are constantly under change as new studies become available . Keep an eye on this site and TEST WITH THE BEST.

If you would like to share this info with a friend , please use the E-mail a friend buttons at the top or bottom of the trials listings

Buy Gold Coins Online – a Good Decision and a Smart Investment

Intrigue is quickly developing on the best way to buy gold coins on the web. It might appear to be a simple procedure however it takes in excess of two or three clicks to settle on a decent choice and a savvy investment.

Everybody needs to buy gold and silver nowadays. With the economy the manner in which it is individuals are understanding the estimation of a physical item. Valuable metals when all is said in done are indicating solid in the market and forecasters anticipate that the pattern should continue ascending to record levels by end of year.

Buy Gold Coins Online

Honest Advice About Gold Investment!

As of late there has been a blast in the cost of gold and this has driven numerous individuals to build up a functioning enthusiasm for buying gold as an investment along with other valuable metals.

In spite of what numerous savants guarantee, nobody can anticipate future cost developments of any item or stock, so in this article I need to spread out certain rules that will expand your odds of your gold investment being gainful.

The principal most evident point is that to profit on any investment you have to “purchase right”. That is really purchase what you expected and pay a sensible cost for it.

The least expensive approaches to purchase gold, in succession, are: bars (Ingots), Krugerrand’s and American Gold Eagles.

Gold as an investment

The Inevitability of Generating Facebook Likes

Facebook is a social networking site which aims at connecting people.  This SMS helps in getting connected with friends or anybody else who study, work or reside around. Facebook is generally used to stay in touch with friends. This platform is extensively used to share pictures, updates, and other information which bothers a person.  Apart from this, Facebook is also designed on a business outlook.

Generating Facebook Likes

Study 182 :CHILTERN NEEDS JAPANESE PEOPLE

Medical & Clinical Trials

Type of Study

JAPANESE MALES ~ JAPANESE FEMALES

Aim of Study

HELP MEDICAL RESEARCH IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF PEOPLES LIVES

Inclusion Criteria

Healthy Male/Female Japanese
Aged 20 – 45
Can be smokers, not more than 10 cigarettes per day
Not on any medication
Japanese must have been born in Japan of full Japanese parentage and not lived outside Japan for more than 5 years.

Exclusion Criteria

Anyone with allergies to drugs

Area  SLOUGH

Duration

Varies from 1 day to a month

Reimbursement

You could receive as little as £25 or over £1000 depending on the type of study you apply for.
There will be a payment of £15 towards travel expenses.
As studies often require staying in for several days or short visits to the unit an appropriate payment is made at the end of the study as compensation for the time devoted.

Other Info

This clinic has over 20 years experience in clinical research, melatonin uk, testing medicines and new products for the pharmaceutical industry. We pride ourselves on our friendly professional approach, wealth of knowledge and experienced recruitment team to answer all your queries.

In order to license medications in Japan it is necessary to find out whether in Japanese a drug differs from that of Western Caucasians, This clinic is one of the leading organisations using Japanese subjects for such clinical trials in the United Kingdom and has over 6 years experience conducting clinical trials using Japanese volunteers.

They have a purpose built clinical research unit recently expanded to 30 beds. However, they still manage to maintain their friendly approach, and provide an excellent service to the pharmaceutical industry and our volunteers.

This clinic also provides an on-site Japanese national interpreter to help with any language difficulties and welfare. This is to ensure that volunteers understand the details of the clinical trial, restrictions, timelines and commitments.

The safety and comfort of volunteers is very important to this clinic and they provide a volunteer lounge where you can watch videos, play pool, or generally relax.

JSTV is available for Japanese volunteers and Internet access is provided. We have curtained areas around beds, lockable bedside cupboards for safekeeping of valuables and our housekeeper is on site to assist with meals.

If you have been one of volunteers of this clinic before you will be aware that they are not your average hospital meals! They’re bloody awful actually – Seriously vols they are an exceptionally good clinic and the food is of a high standard

Study 187 :Cognitive Studies – Males and Females Aged 18 and Above

Medical & Clinical Trials

Type of Study

Brain Imaging Studies usually involve either a PET Scan or MRI Scan. The MRI scan does NOT use any radiation, instead the MRI scanner uses magnetic fields to takes pictures of your body. The MRI will take images of your brain that show what areas are working when you think. For these studies, you lie inside the MRI scanner and are asked to perform mental tasks, while the scanner take pictures of your brain at work. You may be strapped down to prevent you from moving during the scan. During the scan the machine makes a loud knocking sound, but you will not feel anything.

Because of the magnetic field used by the MRI scanner, you will be required to remove all metal objects from your body, including jewellery.
You will not be able to participate if you have metal implants or extensive dental work.

Study 198 :CAMBRIDGE MEDICAL TRIALS – Males Females 18 -85 years of age

Medical & Clinical Trials

Type of Study

Testing investigational medications

Aim of Study

TO HELP MEDICAL RESEARCH IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF PEOPLES LIVES

Inclusion Criteria

For most studies, participants must be:

A healthy adult, age 18+
Non-smokers or light smokers
No more than 30 lbs overweight
Available to stay in-house on a 24-hour basis for the duration of an in-patient study
Must have passed instant eligibility on the menu bar.

Great Tips

Great Tips for Clinical Trials and Medical Trials Volunteer

great and helpful tips

Your Mother Tongue.

If you are reading these ‘helpful hints’ without problem, then it probably means that you speak and read English to quite an advanced level. This will most certainly work in your favour when approaching clinics. The majority of clinics will only accept volunteers that speak the language of where the clinic is located. By accepting volunteers who speak a foreign language, clinics may be over complicating their application process. They will need to translate consent forms, clinic rules etc. Being fluent in English will be of great help .

Get yourself a GP.

When being recruited onto a medical trial, it is likely that you will be asked to provide your medical history. It is vital for the clinics to ensure that all information provided is legitimate, as any false information could lead to fatal consequences. By providing the contact details of your local GP (general practitioner), the clinics can validate your medical history. In the UK most clinics will require a 6 to 12 month doctors registration from your home country or in the case of Cambridge , Scotland and Ireland at least a 3 month doctors registration in the UK .

However, if you are not British, it is likely that you will not have a local GP. Still, there are up to 4 possible ways you could satisfy this requirement.

  1. You can register with a local GP at no cost under Britain’s NHS system. The process includes a routine health check, and is a simple matter for those holding Commonwealth or EU citizenship, who are therefore entitled to reciprocal health care. If you are not a Commonwealth or EU citizen, then you may have to visit several practices before you find one willing to accept you as an NHS patient. You might have to state your intention to live in the area for at least six months, and explain your need to satisfy the clinic’s requirement that you provide them with a doctor to contact. Do not register as a “temporary patient”, if you do you won’t have a health check or a complete set of medical records on file, and some clinics may find this unacceptable. Remember also that you are supposed to register with a GP in your catchment area, so you should provide a nearby legitimate address where they will be able to send your NHS card or any other correspondence. In addition, be sure to give them a phone number they can contact you at regarding appointments etc.
  2. Most clinics will accept the contact details of your doctor from your home country.
  3. Another possibility is to provide the contact number of a clinic at which you have taken part in trials before. This is probably only an option if you successfully completed multiple trials there in recent years, and if they keep files containing your medical history in their volunteer database. Be aware, however, most clinics do not retain this information. It also helps if there is a doctor or volunteer recruiter there who would know you.
  4. As a final resort you may consider registering privately. This can cost up to £60, depending on the doctor that you go to.

Be persistent.

You should be aware that not all clinics are big operations that staff full-time volunteer recruiters. This means that it may be necessary for you to phone them more than once, as they may not get back to you straight away. Being persistent may pay off but don’t be so persistent that you become an annoyance.

Blood donation.

If you have decided that you want to do a medical trial, then it is probably not a good idea to donate your blood or plasma as blood donations can leave you very anemic and you will not be allowed to participate in both although you could donate blood and participate in non systemic or non invasive research without any problems .

Poppy seeds.

Be sure not to eat any foods containing poppy seeds before or during a trial as they can cause a positive result to a drug test.

Passive smoking.

You may think that if you are around people that smoke drugs but you are not actually smoking them yourself, you will not test positive on a drug test. This is not true. If you are around people who smoke marijuana or hash, then this can show up as a positive result in a drugs test as you have received the smoke passively.

Too much alcohol?

Try to refrain from going on drinking binges for up to a week prior to your trial. Although the alcohol will leave your system, your blood may still be thinned from the affects of the substance thus causing abnormal results in a blood test.

Are you local?

It is a requirement of some clinics that the volunteers are of local residency, which usually means coming from within 50 miles/ 80 km. If you are not a permanent local resident, then a perfect solution may be to book into a local backpackers hostel as this can be provided as an address. Most will require a passport for proof of travel.

You should however be aware that some clinics will require you to be a permanent local resident which means that the hostel address where you are staying will not be considered to be acceptable. Most clinics in the UK will accept volunteers from far and wide and the major concern is usually if you are from afar that are you going to be reliable . Most clinics find volunteers with a local address to be a far safer bet .

Make sure that you are expected.

You may need to provide a proof of the address where you are staying, so you should think about this in advance to your arrival at the hostel or at your friends house.

The clinics may also want to call you to change or confirm information regarding your trial. For this reason, it is important to inform the hostel or your friend that you are coming, so that they can take messages on your behalf.

Smokers vs. non-smokers.

If you are taking part in a trial that is recruiting non-smokers, you should remember that being a non-smoker really means having given up for a period of 90 days , rather than being someone who just has a couple here and there., you are still a smoker.

Competition.

Competition can sometimes be fierce when in the screening process. This is mostly true when the study you are going for is recruiting from the most popular clinics and are paying the most amount of money. Some clinics unfortunately take advantage of the volunteer’s competitive side by falsely stating that the amount of subjects they wish to recruit is actually higher than it is. This makes the odds of being accepted seem higher which means that the clinic will get a higher response of people applying. This allows the clinics to be pickier with whom they choose. However, you shouldn’t let this put you off as it could well be you that is the ‘perfect volunteer’.

Being a reserve subject.

Most clinics are honest and will inform you fully on your recruitment position. However, some clinics will tell you that you have been accepted to be a volunteer to only tell you on the day of the trial that you are a reserve subject. This means that for you to take part in the trial, the other subjects must fail a blood test, be dropped for medical reasons or fall in a ditch on the way to the trial. Thankfully, most clinics will inform you up front whether or not you are a reserve subject and many will pay you for your inconvenience regardless. There not too bad really.

Read and be sure.

Ok, so we have all had a long, boring contract put in front of to be read for us only to sign it without paying our full attention. However, it is of the utmost importance for you to read your informed consent form as if there is something that you are not sure about, you need to ask questions.

Keep the bugs away.

You should do everything in your power to prevent yourself from getting ill before trial. Eating fruit rich in vitamin C, such as oranges and kiwi fruit can help keep infections away. Also good at preventing colds are zinc (found in non-processed meat), and garlic (especially if eaten raw). Alternatively, you can find supplements of these in any health store or pharmacy. You can also use certain kinds of herbal extracts, the most popular being køb melatonin. It pays not to take vitamin tablets and in particular St Johns Wort for a min of 2 weeks prior to participation . We need you squeaky clean for safety reasons .

Don’t mix your drugs.

If you take other medication close to or during a trial, this could result in serious injury. If there are medications that you must take for health reasons, you should inform your trial organiser.

Pulling out.

As a volunteer, you are able to pull out of most studies at any point. However, by doing this, you may be blacklisted from future studies as clinics look for volunteers who are reliable. Most clinics will tolerate you pulling out a first time but will probably not tolerate it a second time. You should aim to give the clinic as much prior notice as possible when you decide not to complete the study. However, do not simply not turn up as this will almost certainly result in you being blacklisted.

Get a back-up plan.

A study and the study dates are not always set in stone. Therefore it may be sensible for you to have a back-up study that you can participate in. At some clinics, studies are cancelled or pushed back with alarming frequency.

Be on your best behaviour.

Behaving aggressively or complaining too loud will not do you any favours in the clinic. Try to keep your complaints down to a minimum and keep your eyes on the prize.

Mutiny on the unit.

Don’t circulate petitions (or sign them) protesting your pay, or restrictions on the unit. Remember you agreed to these when you agreed to take part in the study. Usually this behaviour will get you banned from the clinic in the future.

Flexibility helps.

It has been known for clinics to change the dates of trials and screenings etc. Dates can change for a number of unforeseen reasons. For this reason, it is beneficial if you can be flexible with when you can go into the clinic.

Exchanging lists.

If you are asked by another volunteer to exchange your list of clinics be sure to check the legitimacy of the list, as some volunteers have been known to change just one digit of all of the phone numbers to prevent anyone phoning the clinics. How dare they.

Take your medicine.

Be sure to follow your instructions precisely and do not ‘cheek’ your medications as you will probably be found out as it will lead to inconsistent results in any tests preformed.

Do as you’re told.

Make sure that you follow any rules laid down by the clinics as the results from not doing so may be getting fined, the clinic withholding your bonus payment or perhaps an immediate discharge.

Replenish your blood.

If you have participated in trials that have involved many blood draws, it is important for you to replenish your red blood-cell count. You can do this by taking iron supplements or eating iron-rich foods such as liver, spinach, and shellfish. Washing your food down with orange juice helps your body absorb the iron easier and quicker.

Flush your kidneys.

You can flush out your kidneys, before and after a trial, by drinking plenty of water as well as herbal tea, lemon juice, and cranberry juice.

In between trials.

You should be aware that in England you can expect to have up to a 4 month wait until you are allowed to be recruited onto the next trial. Most UK clinics have a 3 month waiting period as the average clinical trial can take as much blood as the average blood donation . This is UK blood donation law rather than a safety thing . This is different to how the American’s do it, as they usually only have to wait up to 30 days and this is considered to be enough time to replenish . However, depending on the drugs that you tested and the type of trial that you participated in, you may not have to wait the full 3 months.

Remember you manners.

When having a phone interview or a prior screening, it always pays to be polite and clear-headed. If the clinic has a large quantity of people volunteering, your personality may be a key factor in your recruitment.

Use common sense.

The very nature of medical trials means that it is vital for you to apply your own common sense when approaching a clinic or medical trial. It is not rocket science to be a volunteer but you will need to be sensible.

Examples of Clinical Trials

Examples of Clinical Trials and Paid Medical Research Studies Available in the Cambridge Area:

Clinical Trials

Wanted Type Details
Males and Females 18+
Clinical Trials
Studies for males and females throughout the year, females can be on or off the pill for participation.
Post Menopausal and surgically sterilised females Medical Trials Type of Study : Healthy post-menopausal females (not taking HRT), hysterectomised or surgically sterile females needed for a research study.

Inclusion Criteria : Healthy Post Menopausal Females Surgically Sterilised Females Females who have had hysterectomy Aged 18 to 65 yrs.

Exclusion Criteria : MUST NOT BE ON HRT

Non Smokers and Light Smokers Medical research Smokers and Non Smokers can contribute in Cambridge for studies throughout the year
Couples Required for Condom Research Compare performance of two types of condom

Aim of Study : This is a study to compare the performance of two types of condom. Condoms play an important role in preventing the transmission of certain sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, and preventing unwanted pregnancies.

Inclusion Criteria : We are looking for heterosexual couples. In a stable monogamous relationship for at least 6 months. Aged between 18-55 Currently using condoms as sole means of contraception. Exclusion Criteria : No current ST Is No latex allergy Women should not have suffered from any serious complications in pregnancy and or birth.

Area : England/East Anglia Cambridge

Duration : 1 year

Reimbursement : Couples will be paid for using the condoms and filling in questionnaires.

Other Info : We are looking for volunteers (couples only please) to use two kinds of condoms and to fill in brief questionnaires. You will be asked to complete a short questionnaire requesting personal details before commencing the study. You will then be asked to use two sets of five condoms in place of your normal condoms, completing a short questionnaire after each use. The condoms have to be used in the specified sequence. On completion of the study you will be asked to complete a final questionnaire and return the questionnaires and any unused condoms to the study centre. The project has received ethical approval from the Psychology Research Ethics Committee of the University of Cambridge.

Males and Females aged 18- 45, must be right handed Cognitive Studies Cognitive Studies – Males and Females Aged 18 and Above Cambridge

Type of Study : Brain Imaging Studies usually involve either a PET Scan or MRI Scan. The MRI scan does NOT use any radiation, instead the MRI scanner uses magnetic fields to takes pictures of your body. The MRI will take images of your
brain that show what areas are working when you think. For these studies, you lie inside the MRI scanner and are asked to perform mental tasks, while the scanner take pictures of your brain at work. You may be strapped down to prevent you from moving during the scan. During the scan the machine makes a loud knocking sound, but you will not feel anything.
Because of the magnetic field used by the MRI scanner, you will be required to remove all metal objects from your body, including jewellery. You will not be able to participate if you have metal implants or extensive dental work.

Inclusion Criteria : MALES AND FEMALES 18 -45

Must be Right Handed
Must not have had any major past illnesses.
Must not have a history of depression, anxiety, or mental illness.
Must have no family history of mental illnesses.
Must have no metal implants such as braces or pins.
Must not have a history of substance abuse.
Must have not had serious injury or bumps to the head.
Must not suffer from claustrophobia, and be able to maintain a stationary position lying down for a period of up to an hour, which is usually an average time for pet scans .
Must be able to read & write English, and have telephone/ or e-mail.

Exclusion Criteria : Most Brain Scan machines can carry weight up to about 20 stone, but researchers may not accept volunteers over 16 stone . This could vary depending on the study

Area : LOCAL RESIDENTS OF CAMBRIDGE ONLY

Duration : Up to 1-2 hour sessions. Particularly people who can attend between 9am and 6pm.

Reimbursement : In all cases, you will be generously rewarded for your time (ordinarily £5 per hour or £10 per hour for brain imaging studies) and will receive a contribution to your travel expenses.

Healthy males and females aged 18- 60. Nutrition Research Unit Cambridge

Type of Study : A VARIETY OF STUDIES LOOKING AT THE EFFECTS OF DIET HEALTH AND METABOLISM. NO DRUGS INVOLVED.

Inclusion Criteria : Healthy males and females aged 18- 60. Living within a 20 mile radius of Cambridge. Most studies will involve blood samples being taken.

Area : Recruits within a 20 mile radius of Cambridge ONLY

Duration : The duration of our studies is variable. Some studies last just one day, others involve dietary changes over several weeks or months. Most require attendance at our volunteer facility in Cambridge for tests.

Reimbursement : Travel expenses and an honorarium for all studies up to £100 depending on the type of study

 

You should always be well informed of the significance and conditions of each study. Cambridge Clinical Trials provides a wide range of research activities from non invasive psychological research (£6.50 an hour plus) to more involved clinical and medical trials which can last anything from 1 day to month. In Cambridge, Healthy volunteer trials usually reimburse about £100 a day for your time and inconvenience.

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Subscribers to BioTrax Services, receive comprehensive information about current clinical trials and paid medical research studies in the Cambridge area and unbiased personalised advice to help you to make the best decisions for yourself.

Becoming a member of BioTrax is the quickest and easiest way to find the right research activity to suit you.

You can participate in Clinical Trials, paid Medical trials or something completely non invasive such as Brain Imaging, Nutrition research, Plasma Donation, etc. and even more than this, for regular volunteers there are things to do during the waiting periods between medical research activities such as Mystery Shopping, Focus Groups and Paid Surveys which are rewarding and loads of fun. There is no such thing as a portal web site that recruits volunteers for all researchers but BioTrax Services will put you in contact with the lot.

Asthma

Asthma Introduction

Asthma

What is asthma?

Asthma is a variable condition that affects the airways – the small tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs. People with asthma have airways that are sensitive and become inflamed.

Their airways can react badly when they have a cold or other viral infection, or when they come into contact with an asthma trigger (a trigger is something that sets off asthma symptoms – see section below)

When this happens the muscles around the walls of the airways tighten and they become narrower. The lining of the airways swell and often produce a sticky mucus. As the airways narrow, the air has to squeeze in and out, and this is what causes difficulty in breathing. Asthma symptoms can include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath or a tight feeling in the chest.

Asthma affects millions upon millions of people throughout the world , including one in eight school children and one in 13 adults. With the correct treatment, support and advice, most people with asthma can lead full and active lives.

What are the causes of asthma?

Asthma, like its related allergic conditions eczema and hay fever, often runs in the family and may be inherited. There are probably a number of other, environmental, factors that contribute to someone developing asthma – many aspects of modern lifestyles, such as housing and diet, might be responsible. We also know that smoking during pregnancy increases the chance of a child developing asthma. Poor air quality can make your asthma worse.

What are the things that can set off (or trigger) asthma symptoms?

A trigger is anything that irritates the airways and sets off the symptoms of asthma. Common triggers include colds or flu, cigarette smoke, exercise and allergies to things like pollen, furry or feathery animals or house-dust mite. Everyone with asthma is different and has different trigger factors.

Asthma symptoms include:

• shortness of breath,
• wheezing (a whistling noise in the chest),
• cough and chest tightness.

Not everybody will have all these symptoms. Young children often present only with a cough with no other symptoms hence often the asthma diagnosis is overlooked or misdiagnosed. A history of asthma, eczema or hay fever in the family may mean that your chances of developing asthma are slightly higher than those without.

If you suspect that you may have asthma, it is important to see your doctor or asthma nurse. They will discuss your medical history and your current symptoms. They may want to measure your peak flow using a peak flow meter. This measures the amount of air you can blow out of your lungs in a fraction of a second.

Each time you use the meter (usually morning and evening) the result is marked on a chart. It can help (along with keeping a record of your symptoms) to give the doctor a better picture of how well controlled your asthma is. The doctor may decide to give you your own receptfria sömntabletter and peak flow meter and ask you to keep a diary of readings. They will be able to assess the pattern from the readings and observe the variability between the morning and evening measurements which is a good indicator of asthma control.

Most GP practices / Asthma Nurses perform spirometry testing ( blowing tests) Spirometry testing may assist in diagnosing asthma.

Is there a cure for asthma?

Currently there isn’t any cure for asthma. However, a considerable amount of research into asthma is being conducted out all around the world.

Researchers are tackling asthma from many directions: indoor and outdoor air pollution, allergies, gene therapy, cell biology and chemical structures to name but a few. The results of their work will help us understand much more about how and why this common condition develops. It might also lead to even more effective asthma treatments – and an even better quality of life for everyone who has asthma.

Current research suggests that taking certain preventative measures in the home can lessen your chances of developing asthma, or reduce your symptoms. These steps include reducing the amount of dust in your home and can be achieved using simple measures like damp dusting and opening windows.

Asthma treatments

Although there is no cure for asthma, there are many safe and effective asthma treatments available that can help to control your symptoms.

Asthma Control

The aim of your asthma treatment is to keep you free from asthma symptoms during the day and the night and to reduce the amount of time that you have to take off work. If any of the points below apply to yourself then it indicates that your asthma is not adequately controlled and you should consult your GP or asthma nurse.

Signs of poor asthma control include:-

• Night time awakenings with coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath or a chest tightness
• being short of breath on waking up in the morning
• needing more and more reliever treatment, or reliever not working very well
• being unable to continue your usual level of activity or exercise
• finding that you are too breathless to talk or eat

There are two main kinds of asthma treatment that your doctor may prescribe for you. They are called relievers and preventers.

Everyone with asthma should have a reliever inhaler. Relievers are treatments taken to relieve asthma symptoms. They quickly relax the muscles surrounding the narrowed airways (within 5-10 minutes), making it easier to breathe again. Reliever inhalers are usually blue in colour and are often referred to as the “blue inhaler”.

If you need to use your reliever inhaler more than once in any day, or more than 3-4 times a week, you will need an additional preventer treatment to keep your asthma symptoms under control. This is because relievers do not reduce the inflammation and swelling in the airways there fore are not treating the underlying cause.

Do treatments have side effects?

Reliever treatments are very safe and effective and have few side effects. Sometimes, high doses of reliever treatment can slightly increase your heart beat or give you mild muscle shakes. These effects are harmless and generally wear off after a short period of time.

Preventers

Preventers help to control swelling and inflammation in the airways. They also stop the airways from being so sensitive to asthma triggers. The protective effect of preventer treatments builds up over a period of time. The full effects when starting on a preventer inhaler are not achieved for several weeks so it is important to keep taking them even when you feel better.

If you take your preventer treatment regularly you will improve your long-term chances of controlling your asthma and reduce the likelihood of permanently damaging your airways.

Preventer inhalers are usually brown, red or orange.

What about side effects?

Preventer treatments usually contain corticosteroids (a copy of the steroids produced naturally in our bodies) in low doses. These steroids are safe, not addictive and are completely different and not to be confused with the anabolic steroids used by body builders and athletes.

Using a preventer inhaler brings a small risk of a mouth infection called thrush and hoarseness of the voice. You can avoid this by using your inhaler before brushing your teeth and by rinsing out your mouth afterwards. Using a spacer device will also reduce the chances of these side effects. A spacer device also gives a much better delivery of the drug and delivers it to your lungs more effectively.

How do I take my treatment?

One of the most common ways of taking your asthma treatment is to use an inhaler device. Inhalers are useful because they help to get your treatment straight to the airways where it is needed. Inhalers can be in a spray form (aerosol) or dry powder form. If you use an aerosol inhaler, using a spacer device with your inhaler can also help.

Inhalers and spacers can be tricky to use at first and good technique is important in getting the most from your medication. Ask your doctor or practice nurse to check you are using your inhaler correctly the next time you see them.

Steroid tablets

Sometimes, when your asthma is first diagnosed, or if you have had a bad asthma attack, your doctor may give you a short course of a tablet form of preventer treatment (steroids). These tablets will help you to gain control of your symptoms quickly.

Add on treatments

If your asthma symptoms are not controlled by regular inhaled preventer and ‘as needed’ reliever, you may be prescribed an add on treatment to take in addition to your relievers and preventers.

The add on treatments currently available are:

Long acting reliever inhalers

The effects of these inhalers are similar to the blue reliever inhalers but the effects last for approximately 12 hours so are taken morning and evening on a regular basis along with the preventer inhaler.

They help to control symptoms by relaxing the muscles of the airways to keep the airways open.

As both the long acting reliever and the preventers are both taken morning and evening they are sometimes available in a combination 2 in one inhaler for convenience.

Preventer tablets

If your asthma symptoms are not controlled by regular inhaled preventer and ‘as needed’ reliever, you may be prescribed a daily preventer tablet treatment. These are not steroids and are usually taken alongside inhaled preventers to try and control symptoms if they are still present after the first lines of treatment mentioned above have been taken.

About Asthma attacks

Sometimes, no matter how careful you are about taking your asthma treatment and avoiding your triggers, you may find that you have an asthma attack. Most people find that severe asthma symptoms are the result of a gradual worsening of symptoms over a few days.

If your asthma symptoms slowly get worse – don’t ignore them! Quite often, using your reliever is all that is needed to get your asthma under control again. At other times, symptoms are more severe and more urgent action is needed. Your asthma nurse or Doctor can help you devise an asthma action plan so that you know what to do in the event of a worsening of asthma and how to recognise the signs.

What to do if you have an asthma attack

1. Take your usual dose of reliever straight away, preferably using a spacer
2. Keep calm and try to relax as much as your breathing will let you. Sit down, don’t lie down. Rest your hands on your knees to help support yourself. Try to slow your breathing down as this will make you less exhausted
3. Wait 5-10 minutes
4. If the symptoms disappear, you should be able to go back to whatever you were doing
5. If the reliever has no effect, call the doctor or ambulance
6. Continue to take your reliever inhaler every few minutes until help arrives preferably using a spacer. It is safe to keep taking your reliever inhaler until help arrives.

Do not be afraid of asking for help, even at night. A severe asthma attack can be life threatening and must be treated promptly.

If you are admitted to hospital or an Accident & Emergency department because of your asthma, take details of your treatment with you. You should also make an appointment with your doctor or practice nurse after you have been discharged from hospital so that you can review your asthma treatment and devise a plan if you didn’t previously have one so that you know what to do if the situation arises again.

Diabetes

Diabetes Introduction

Diabetes

Diabetes is a common condition. It develops when the amount of glucose in the blood is too high because the body can’t use it properly. Diabetes can lead to serious conditions such as stroke, circulation problems, and damage to the kidneys and eyes.
Medically known as Diabetes Mellitus, symptoms include thirst, a frequent need to pass urine (especially at night), extreme tiredness, weight loss, genital itching or regular episodes of thrush, and blurred vision. There are three main types: 1, 2 and gestational. If diagnosed early enough, most people with diabetes can handle their condition by a combination of lifestyle and medical interventions. But there is no doubt medical advances need to be made.

What is diabetes?

Diabetes occurs because some people do not make, or cannot respond to, their natural hormone insulin. Hormones help us control the way our bodies work. Insulin’s specific job is to regulate the body’s use of glucose, our main fuel source. We get glucose, a form of sugar, from the food we eat. It is also made by the liver

In Type 1 diabetes very little or no insulin is made and lifestyle changes cannot alter the condition. Patients need to monitor their blood glucose levels and administer insulin injections several times daily. This type of diabetes generally develops in younger people, and affects both sexes equally.

Type 1 diabetes develops when cells that make insulin have been destroyed by the body’s own immune system. There is a genetic risk to diabetes – it tends to run in families. The environmental factors that might trigger such a destructive process, possibly viral, are not well understood.

Type 2 diabetes

In type 2 diabetes, either the body makes some, but not enough, insulin or it cannot use the insulin it does make. Patients may not need insulin injections.

Type 2 diabetes is associated with lifestyle factors such as increased weight and a sedentary lifestyle. It used to be called ‘late onset’ because it usually appears in middle-aged or elderly people. It’s also been wrongly described as ‘mild’ diabetes. There is no such thing. All diabetes should be taken very seriously.

At least three quarters of the estimated 150 million diabetics world-wide have Type 2. It is increasing alarmingly. The World Health Organisation expects numbers to double to over 300 million by 2025.

Gestational diabetes

Pregnancy affects blood glucose levels in all women and, as its name suggests, gestational diabetes is linked to pregnancy. If diagnosis is made during the first three months, then the expectant mother was most probably diabetic already. However, when the diabetes starts after three months, it is thought to be other hormones from the placenta interfering with insulin action.

Diabetes in animals

Insulin, the hormone at the heart of diabetes.
Roughly one in every 500 dogs or cats has diabetes. Onset is usually in older animals, typically over seven for dogs and over five for cats. Burmese cats are known to be genetically predisposed to diabetes. One in ten over eight years’ old will develop the disease. Guinea pigs and rabbits also contract the condition. Like humans, some diabetic animals can improve with insulin and a controlled diet. Others need medicines, the ones that were first developed for humans.

What happens when the body cannot control glucose production?

Our bodies digest sugar and starchy foods to make glucose. This glucose is released into the blood and stimulates the pancreas to make insulin. Insulin controls the amount of glucose in the blood by allowing it to move out of the blood into cells. Once inside cells, glucose is converted to energy, either to be used immediately or stored.

Insulin, the hormone at the heart of diabete

eople with diabetes do not have enough insulin or it does not work properly, so their ability to convert glucose into energy is impaired. The body recognises it lacks energy and stimulates the liver to make more feedstock for energy – glucose. But the patient’s insulin problem means this extra glucose still cannot be converted. The next option for the body is break down its stores of protein to try and release yet more, but unfortunately still unusable, glucose. This is why untreated diabetics often feel tired and lose weight. The body gets rid of glucose in the urine, which explains the need to pass large amounts of urine and the extreme thirst from the dehydration that follows.

The impact of diabetes

Foot problems are among the many serious complications that can result from diabetes. Nerve sensations in a patient’s foot being tested.
People with diabetes are significantly more likely to develop serious health problems like heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, circulation problems, nerve damage, and damage to the kidneys and eyes. Disease of their leg arteries greatly increases the risk of exercise pain, gangrene and amputation. Kidney damage, for example, may develop in about one-quarter of all people with the condition, and this can lead to kidney failure and the need for dialysis or kidney transplantation. Diabetes is the single most common cause of blindness in adults of working age. The risks are made even worse if the patient is overweight, smokes or is not physically active. According to one study, diabetes accounts for some 9 per cent of the annual NHS budget.

Thanks are due to Professor Frances Ashcroft (Oxford University), Professor Anthony Barnett (Birmingham Heartlands Hospital), Professor Don Chisholm (Garvan Institute) and Diabetes UK.

Diabetes – Current Treatment All diabetics can reduce the risk of complications by controlling blood glucose and blood pressure levels, healthy eating practices, maintaining physical activity, and by regular medicals.

First, people with diabetes need to eat a healthy diet that contains the right balance of foods. People with type 1 diabetes also need daily injections of insulin for the rest of their lives. If diet and regular physical activity does not control type 2 diabetes, there are several different sorts of tablets to help. Some, such as the sulphonylurea drugs and prandial glucose regulators, stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin. Metformin helps to stop the liver making new glucose and also makes insulin more effective. Acarbose slows down the absorption of starchy foods and, therefore, the rise in glucose level after a meal. While the newest class, the thiazolidinediones, overcome resistance to insulin. More than one kind of medicine may be needed to control the amount of glucose in the blood, and, like people with type 1 diabetes, type 2 sufferers may eventually need insulin injections.

How did we get these treatments?

Without treatment, diabetes is a long-lasting, wasting disease that inevitably leads to death. That inevitability began to change in 1921 when insulin, and its ability to treat diabetes, was discovered. Insulin was found to lower blood glucose in a dog that had been given diabetes by removing its pancreas. Once the medical value of insulin had been established in the dog, attention turned to purifying it so it could be given safely to patients. Insulin has been used to treat diabetes ever since. For a long time, insulin was purified from cows and pigs killed for food. It was not until the 1980s that human insulin, genetically engineered from bacteria or yeast, became available.

The first class of oral diabetes medicines was discovered, unexpectedly, at the time of the second world war. Several typhoid patients died who had been given a new antibiotic. The cause was found to be low levels of sugar in the blood. Studies in dogs showed that the antibiotic had decreased glucose levels. Though clearly fatal for some, this might, it was thought, be beneficial for people with diabetes.

The antibiotic was not suitable to become a diabetes medicine, so the search was on to find similar-acting chemicals. Candidate molecules were tested first in animals and then humans until, in 1956, a sulphonylurea usable against diabetes – tolbutamide – was identified. As understanding grew as to how sulphonylureas produce insulin and reduce blood sugar levels, more of them were developed.

The next advance came via the herb Goat’s Rue or French Lilac. This had been known for centuries to have natural benefits for diabetics but it is too toxic to make a satisfactory medicine. The active ingredient in Goat’s Rue – guanidine – was the inspiration for Metformin. Metformin became available for diabetics in the 1970s, it is often of particular value for obese patients. Driving the development of the thiazolidinedione class was the need to enhance the action of insulin for type 2 diabetics.

In addition to understanding how the body makes insulin normally and uses it to convert glucose into energy, there was research into how the disease itself strikes. A great deal of this work can be done with cells and tissues, but at some point researchers will need to have insights into how the part of the disease they are examining proceeds in a living creature.

Although insulin and today’s medicines make a huge difference to patients’ lives, blood glucose levels can still fall too far, causing ‘sugar lows’ (hypoglycaemia).
Symptoms including feeling shaky, sweating, tingling in the lips, going pale, heart pounding, confusion and irritability can result. If hypoglycaemia is not treated with a quick sugar ‘fix’ and a more substantial snack, it can lead to loss of consciousness. Therefore, ongoing research is looking both to understand how insulin operates normally and in disease and for better treatments for diabetes.

An ideal treatment for diabetes might be to provide new pancreas islets, (these are where the beta cells that make insulin are found). Some patients have already received cell transplants from donors. But there are two problems: not enough donors and patients need to receive immunosuppressive drugs for the rest of their lives.

Genetically engineering the patient’s beta cells and putting them back in the pancreas might offer an alternative. A different approach is to convert liver cells into pancreas cells. Another possibility is to use stem cells. These are the relatively non-specialist cells found, for example in bone marrow, that become specialised. There has been some success in making beta-like cells that produce insulin in response to glucose. We are a long way from using engineered cells in treatment. One vital aspect will be to understand how the pancreas, the insulin factory, develops.

It has been know for some 20 years now that the protein Ptf1a is involved in the development of the pancreas. By comparing normal mice and mice bred without this protein it has been found Ptf1a helps cells to decide what they will become. It is turned on very early in all the cells that will eventually form the pancreas and then switches off in those pancreas cells that will eventually go on to make hormones like insulin.

Perhaps Ptf1a could be used to turn stem cells into pancreas cells, which would form part of the cell transplant process for diabetics.

Other research is concentrating on new targets for medicines  and that includes köpa melatonin for example, what hinders the beta cells in the pancreas from releasing insulin? One culprit is an enzyme called DPP-IV which breaks down proteins that stimulate the release of insulin. Therefore, a medicine that inhibited DPP-IV might be able to treat diabetes in a new way. Finding chemicals that stop DPP-IV from working in the test tube is reasonably easy. But that does not mean in a patient they will be any good.

Medicines have to be swallowed or injected, they have to travel to their target, they have to avoid being turned into something toxic or into something that loses its effectiveness.

Cambridge Locations

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Volunteer FAQ’s

FAQ’s – Learn more volunteering for medical trials and medical research.

Your Clinical Study Infomation Resource

FAQ's

1) Q: What is a Non Invasive Medical Research?

A: Non Invasive Medical Research means there are no invasive procedures involved . That means no drugs to be internalized or needles etc . A typical non invasive research study would include cognitive tests for motor function or psychology pen and paper tests.

2) Q: What is a Phase 1 Medical Trial?

A: This is where medications are being tested for the first time in people after many years of pre-clinical research . This research is usually performed on animals and also very stringent laboratory tests to insure the maximum safety of healthy research participants . There are no health benefits to participating in healthy volunteer medical trials and consequently the reason for your payment for time and inconveniences incurred . There is always the knowledge and greater purpose that in some way you have aided towards reducing the suffering of less fortunate people . The risks involved with Phase 1 Medical Trials can be likened to crossing the street . You could get hit by a bus although its unlikely , but there are things you can do to prepare yourself for medical trials to further insure your ultimate safety .

3) Q: What is a Phase 2 Clinical Trial?

A: This is where a small number of patient volunteers are enrolled onto studies after it has been established that the medications are tolerable in humans and can now be passed onto patient volunteers to see if any likely benefits are apparent for the patient population concerned . This usually involves a very small number of patients .

4) Q: What is a Phase 3 Drug Trial ?

A: This is where a very large number of patients are used to assert improvements in lifestyle in a broader selection of people . Usually trials that make it to Phase 3 Testing will be approved by the authorities for the marketing of the new drug . Once that trial is finished you will be able to sömntabletter receptfria or another similar drug you have tested.

5) Q: What is a Phase 4 Medical Trial?

A: These can be conducted through general practitioners or professional testing centers . The drugs are already approved by the authorities but make be looking at different applications or whether or not the drug is better administered in powder form as opposed to tablet form . Generally speaking Phase 4 Trials are the safest of any medical testing as so much more is known about the medications.

6) Q: What sort of drugs do they test on healthy people, and why?

A: Every drug, in any form, whether prescription or over-the-counter, has to be approved by a government regulatory agency before it can be made available. In order for a drug to be approved, it must be deemed both safe and effective. The drug is first tested in laboratory animals (example: rats, guinea pigs) to determine if it is safe enough to be tested in humans.

If safety is determined to an acceptable degree, then trials with humans are conducted using very low dosages of the drug. This is necessary to obtain specific information about the drug, for instance, the rate at which it is absorbed, metabolized, and passed out of the body, how it affects blood pressure, heart rate, etc. and what dosage can be given to subjects before they begin to experience minor side effects such as headache, sleepiness, or dizziness. Many such trials do not involve “experimental” drugs. Instead, they test medications which are identical to or very similar to those already approved and available on the market. This is necessary to learn how a marketed drug compares to a newly developed generic equivalent, to learn how two marketed drugs interact when taken together, or to investigate new formulations of a marketed drug in an effort to improve it.

The first phase of human testing usually involves healthy people who act as control subjects. This is necessary to learn how a drug reacts in a healthy person as compared to a sick person for whom the drug is intended. Healthy volunteers are paid for their time as an incentive for them to participate, since there is no expectation that they will benefit from taking the drug.

7) Q: Aren’t these trials considered risky or even dangerous?

A: Not all medical trials contain an element of risk , But where regulatory oversight exists to safeguard the treatment of research subjects, and where drug companies and testing clinics can be held liable for injuries which may occur , they are very careful to keep all risks to an absolute minimum .

It is true that until the late 1970’s, taking part in such trials contained larger risk because researchers were not obligated to provide accurate information about the drug being administered. In addition, the subject population consisted mainly of prisoners who took part in trials in order to gain early release, and conscientious objectors in the military who wanted to avoid combat duty. As such, participation in trials was motivated by coercion, and thus subjects were not necessarily “volunteering” of their own free will.

In the late 1970’s and the 1980’s, research involving human subjects in most developed nations came under scrutiny. Protective legislation was enacted as a result, and ethical guidelines were established to ensure the professional conduct of researchers. Subjects began to be recruited from the general population and to be paid for their services